Computing the SSI Benefit

Once you’ve shown that your disability keeps you from working, Social Security looks at the amount of money you have to pay for basic needs. SSI may be able to give you a monthly cash payment to help meet those needs.

The Cost of Basic Needs: Federal Benefit Rate

Social Security assumes that the cost of basic needs is the same for everybody in a similar living situation. This monthly dollar amount is called the Federal Benefit Rate (FBR). This is the maximum SSI benefits amount for that living situation. The FBR is adjusted every year for the cost of living.

For 2018, the Federal Benefit Rate is $750 for single individuals and $1,125 for eligible couples. This is the maximum SSI benefits amount. Your SSI benefits amount may be less, depending on your living situation.

A typical person on SSI benefits who lives alone in Arizona will get:

Living Arrangements

If you’re a person who lives alone, the FBR (maximum SSI benefit) is $750. The FBR is different if you are an eligible couple, if you live in someone else’s household and you don’t pay the full costs of food and shelter, or if you live in an institution, such as a hospital, nursing home, or prison.

Eligible Couples

Social Security calls you part of an eligible couple if:

  • You are married; and
  • You are living with your spouse; and
  • Both you and your spouse are eligible for SSI benefits.

Note: If a man and woman live in the same household, act as if they are married, and present themselves to the community as being married, Social Security will consider them an eligible couple for SSI purposes. This is often referred to as "holding out." However, for SSI, Social Security only recognizes same-sex couples as married if they are legally married under Arizona law. (The rules are different for SSDI.)

Social Security figures that 2 can live cheaper than 1, so the maximum SSI benefits amount for a couple is $1,125 in 2018 (which is only about 150% of the individual maximum of $750).

If you’re married and living with your spouse, but your spouse is not eligible for SSI benefits, then Social Security thinks that some of your spouse’s income must be available to help pay for basic needs. The process of deciding how your spouse’s income should affect your SSI benefits is called spousal deeming.

If you’re not married, are not living with your spouse, or are part of a same-sex partnership, Social Security treats you as separate persons when calculating your benefits.

Where do you live?
  • If you live in your own place, and pay for your own food and shelter, you can get up to $750, the maximum FBR. It doesn’t matter if you own or rent your place.
  • If you live in someone else’s household, but pay for your own food and shelter, you can still get up to the maximum FBR.
  • But if you live in someone else’s household, and somebody else is paying for some or all of your food and shelter costs, Social Security may reduce the maximum benefits amounts you can get. This is called in-kind support and maintenance.

In-Kind Support and Maintenance (ISM)

When another person gives you (or pays for) your food or shelter, that help is called in-kind support and maintenance (ISM). If you don’t pay your fair share for either food or rent, Social Security assumes you can get by with a lower benefits amount.

Note: If the other person who supplies you with food and shelter is your spouse who lives with you, that help is not considered ISM. Instead, some of your spouse’s income is deemed to be available to you.

Shelter can include any of the normal costs of keeping a place to live: rent, mortgage payments, property taxes, heating fuel, gas, electricity, water, sewer service, and garbage collection.

Because it would be complicated for Social Security (and for you) to keep track of the amount of help you actually get, they assume that the in-kind support has a certain value.

Value of One-Third Reduction Rule (VTR)

The VTR rule says that the most you can get in SSI benefits goes down by one-third if:

  • You live in somebody else’s household, and
  • Somebody in that household helps with both food and shelter.

The VTR rule is all or nothing. It doesn’t matter how much you actually get in free food or free shelter; all that matters is that you get both from somebody living in the same household and you don’t pay anything for them yourself.

Example: Ruggero lives in his uncle’s house and gets SSI benefits. His uncle gives him 3 meals a day and charges Ruggero no rent. Because Ruggero is getting help with both his food and his rent from somebody living in the same house, the VTR rule applies. Ruggero’s SSI benefits amount is reduced by one-third. The full FBR for a single individual is $750. The VTR reduction is one-third of that, or $250.00. Ruggero’s SSI benefit amount is $750 – $250.00 = $500.00.

In all other cases, if you don’t get both free food and shelter, but do get some in-kind support, then a different rule applies.

Presumed Maximum Value Rule (PMV)

The PMV rule says that the most you can get in SSI benefits goes down by a certain amount if:

  • Somebody helps you with food and/or shelter, and
  • The VTR does not apply to your case.
    • Examples: The VTR does not apply if you do not live in the same household as the person helping you with your food and shelter, or if the person helping you does not help with both food and shelter.

The exact amount your maximum SSI benefits go down depends on your situation:

  • By default, it will go down by one-third of the maximum SSI benefit plus $20. For 2018, this Presumed Maximum Value (PMV) is $270.00 for an individual.
  • However, if the actual help you get paying for food or shelter is worth less than the PMV, then your SSI benefits will only be reduced by the actual support amount.
    • If the value of the support you get is less than the default PMV, you must show Social Security documentation of how much support you actually get.

Social Security excludes (ignores) the first $20 in unearned income you have. If the PMV rule applies, your SSI benefits will be reduced by the PMV amount minus $20. If the actual support you get is worth less than the PMV, then your SSI benefits will be reduced by the actual support amount minus $20 instead.

Example: Edgar lives in a house with roommates and is getting SSI benefits. He pays for his own food, but his father pays Edgar’s share of the rent. Edgar’s share of the rent is $500. Because the $500 is larger than the PMV amount ($270.00), the PMV amount is used to calculate his SSI benefits. His benefits amount is $750 – ($270.00 – $20) = $500.00. ­

Example: Manon shares an apartment with a roommate and gets SSI benefits. Her grandmother sends a check for $120 each month to the landlord to help with the rent. Her grandmother’s contribution of $120 is less than the PMV ($270.00). Using the PMV amount, SSI had originally reduced Manon’s benefits amount to $500.00. But when Manon was able to show Social Security that the monthly support she got from her grandmother was less than that, her benefits amount was reduced only by $120 – $20 = $100. Her benefits amount is $750 – $100 = $650.

For all the adding and subtracting of $20, the total SSI cash payment a person gets is often the same if either the VTR or PMV applies.

Spousal Deeming

If you are married and your spouse is not also eligible for SSI benefits, then Social Security assumes that some of your spouse’s income can be used to help pay for your basic needs. The process of deciding how your spouse’s income should affect your SSI benefits is called spousal deeming.

Persons Living in Medical Facilities

Persons who live in medical facilities like hospitals and nursing homes generally can’t collect full SSI benefits.

  • If you are living in a medical facility where the Arizona Long-Term Care System (ALTCS) pays for more than half the cost of your care, your SSI benefits amount is at most $30/month.
  • If you live in a public facility and ALTCS is not paying for more than half of your care, you may qualify for a different SSI benefits amount.
  • If your doctor says you will be in the facility for less than 90 days, and you can show that you need your SSI benefits to keep your home or living arrangement, you may continue to get your SSI benefits.

If you’re expecting to stay for less than 90 days, you need to get the doctor’s note and documentation about your need to Social Security right away. The facility’s admissions office can help you.


You don’t have to have a fixed address to collect SSI benefits. If you’re homeless, you have the same access to SSI benefits as anyone else. See Social Security’s Spotlight on Homelessness for more information.


Eligible Couple

Summary of Maximum SSI Benefits Available

Full Federal Benefit Rate (FBR)



Getting help with living expenses



In a medical facility



Countable Income: Earned and Unearned

Some persons on SSI benefits have other sources of money. You could have some earnings from work, for example, or you could have other benefits coming in. SSI has rules about how much of that other income Social Security expects you to spend on basic needs. The part of your monthly income that SSI expects to be spent on basic needs is called your countable income.

Not all of your income is countable income, some of it is uncountable; there’s a calculation to figure that out. SSI deals with the 2 kinds of income differently.

Earned income is money you get from work you do. It includes salaries, wages, tips, bonuses, professional fees, or other amounts you get in exchange for physical or mental work you actually do. Note that Social Security considers your gross earned income (wages before taxes are deducted) when figuring out your SSI benefits.

If you’re self-employed, you subtract your work expenses before reporting your earned income, the way you do when you file your taxes.

Unearned income is anything else. It’s money you get for which you do no work. Examples include disability benefits such as Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI); short or long-term disability insurance; VA benefits; or Workers’ Compensation; income from a trust or investment; dividends, profits, or any other money gotten from a source other than work.

The countable income calculation seems complicated, but here is the basic idea: Social Security figures that most of your unearned income is supposed to go toward basic expenses, so most of your unearned income goes into your countable income. When you’re working, Social Security assumes that about half of your earned income goes to basic expenses, so roughly half of your earnings are part of your countable income.

The Countable Income Calculation

Step 1: Countable Unearned Income

Start with your total unearned income. Subtract $20, the general exclusion that everyone gets. What’s left is your countable unearned income.

Note: When something is subtracted in the countable income calculation, the result is never allowed to be less than zero.

Countable Unearned Income:

Step 2: Countable Earned Income

Start with your total gross earned income (earnings before taxes are deducted). Subtract anything left over from that $20 general exclusion. Then subtract another $65, the earned income exclusion. Subtract any Impairment Related Work Expenses (more about these on the SSI and Work page). Take what’s left, and divide by 2. The result is your countable earned income.

Countable Earned Income (Non-Blind SSI Recipients):

The calculation is different if you are blind according to SSI rules. If you are blind, we use Blind Work Expenses instead of Impairment Related Work Expenses (see SSI and Work for more details).

Countable Earned Income (Blind SSI Recipients):

Step 3: Countable Income

Add your countable unearned income to your countable earned income. Subtract any contribution to a Plan to Achieve Self-Support (PASS). The result is your total countable income.

Total Countable Income:

Step 4: Benefits Calculation

Start with the Federal Benefit Rate (FBR) for your living situation. Subtract your countable income. The result is your SSI benefits amount.

SSI Benefit Calculation:

If your countable income is larger than the Federal Benefit Rate (FBR), your SSI benefits amount will be zero. In other words, Social Security thinks you are making enough money to pay for your own expenses.

Working students can take some of their income out of the countable income calculation. You can read more about the Student Earned Income Exclusion (SEIE) on the SSI and Work page.

Notice that every dollar of unearned income (above the first $20) reduces your SSI benefits by $1. But because of that “divided-by-2” step, it takes $2 of earned income (after the various subtractions) to reduce your SSI benefits by $1.

Example: Magda is collecting $320/month in SSDI benefits and working a few hours a month to earn $200.

Magda's SSI Benefit Calculation:

If you're not already on SSI benefits, try the following tool to see how much your benefits might be.

Your SSI Benefit Calculation:

Getting SSI

How much you get in SSI benefits depends on your:

If any of these things change, even slightly, you must:

Report changes within 10 days to avoid an overpayment.

Ways to report your income to Social Security

You can report changes in your situation to Social Security:

When you report, you’ll need to have documentation, such as a letter explaining any changes and copies of your paystubs.

If you have questions about the best way to report your earnings, talk to your local Social Security office or talk to a Work Incentive Consultant.


Social Security may decide that they have paid you more in benefits than you were supposed to get. This situation is called an overpayment. You’ll get a letter from Social Security that tells you how much money you must pay back.

It’s very important to deal with an overpayment notice right away. The overpayment letter will ask for the money to be returned within 30 days, but Social Security recognizes that persons on SSI have very little income, so they are willing to work out a reasonable monthly payment plan with you. You should contact Social Security immediately to talk about your options.

The most common reason for overpayments is the failure to report changes in earnings. They can also happen if you don’t report changes in unearned income, living situation, or marriage status. You could also be overpaid because your resources grow beyond the SSI resource limit, or because you are no longer disabled — but you continue to get benefits. If you do not report changes, then the overpayment is your fault and you’ll have to pay the money back.

If you were overpaid but feel that it wasn’t your fault, and you can’t pay back the overpayment because you need the money to pay living expenses, you can ask for a waiver of the overpayment. You can get the waiver form by calling Social Security at 1-800-772-1213 and asking for form SSA-632. If the waiver is granted, you don’t have to repay the overpayment.

Social Security may make a mistake or make a decision without knowing all the facts. If you think the amount of your overpayment is incorrect or that you do not have any overpayment, you have the right to appeal (see SSI Appeals). If you decide to appeal, you should do so right away. If you appeal within 10 days of the date the notice was sent, your checks will keep coming until Social Security decides on the appeal.


Every 1 to 6 years, Social Security will review your income, resources, and living arrangements to make sure that you’re still eligible for SSI benefits and that you’re getting the right benefits amount. This is called a redetermination.

The redetermination can take place:

  • In person
  • By phone
  • By mail

It’s important that you respond right away and do everything Social Security needs you to do. If you don’t respond in a timely way, your SSI payments could be stopped. If you have trouble filling out a redetermination form, you can ask for help at your local Social Security office.

In a redetermination, Social Security doesn’t ask about your medical condition. They will update your records with information about your income, assets, marital status, and so on.

Medical Reviews

Social Security is required by law to review your condition periodically to make sure that you are still medically disabled. This process is called a medical Continuing Disability Review (CDR). You will be notified when Social Security needs to do a CDR, and Social Security may ask you for medical records or other information.

  • If you have been getting benefits for 2 years or more, Social Security will not do a medical review just because you go to work.
  • Social Security won’t do a medical review on your case as long as you’re using employment services through the Ticket to Work Program.

Direct Deposit

Social Security encourages you to have your SSI benefits deposited directly into your bank account, if possible.

Where am I? The Benefits Planning Query (BPQY)

If you have any questions about your Social Security benefits, or if you’re planning a life change that can affect your benefits, it helps to know exactly what your Social Security records look like.

You can get this information by ordering a free statement from Social Security called the Benefits Planning Query (BPQY). You can request your BPQY at your local Social Security office or by calling 1-800-772-1213 or 1-800-325-0778 (TTY).

If the BPQY is incorrect in any way, or you don’t understand what it’s saying, you should call Social Security and get it straightened out.